Overhead water tanks play a vital role in ensuring a reliable and consistent water supply for various purposes, ranging from domestic use to industrial applications. Constructing an overhead water tank requires careful planning, adherence to safety standards, and precision in execution. In this article, we will provide a comprehensive guide to the construction procedure of overhead water tanks, outlining the key steps involved in creating a structurally sound and efficient water storage system.

Site Selection and Preparation

The first step in constructing an overhead water tank is selecting an appropriate site. Factors such as elevation, proximity to the water source, and accessibility should considered. The ground should leveled and compacted to provide a stable foundation. Engineers conduct soil tests to ensure that the site can support the weight of the tank and its contents.

Design and Planning

The design phase involves determining the size, shape, and materials for the overhead water tank. Engineers consider factors such as the anticipated water demand, local climate conditions, and the available budget. The tank’s capacity, height, and structural design are crucial aspects of the planning process. Once the design is finalized, detailed construction plans are created, outlining every aspect of the project.

Material Selection

The choice of materials is a critical factor in the construction of overhead water tanks. Common materials include reinforced concrete, steel, and fiberglass. Reinforced concrete is widely use due to its durability and ability to withstand various weather conditions. The material selected depends on factors such as cost, the corrosiveness of the water, and the structural requirements of the tank.

Foundation Construction

The foundation provides the base support for the overhead water tank. Depending on the soil conditions, foundations may be shallow or deep. The foundation is typically constructed using concrete, and it must design to distribute the load evenly to prevent settling or tilting of the tank over time.

Tank Construction

Formwork: Formwork, or molds, is erected to give shape to the tank. The formwork is typically made of wood or steel and serves as a temporary mold into which the concrete is poured.

Reinforcement: Steel reinforcement, usually in the form of bars or mesh, is installed within the formwork to strengthen the concrete structure. The reinforcement is strategically placed to ensure the tank’s integrity and resistance to external forces.

Concrete Pouring: Once the formwork and reinforcement are in place, concrete into the mold. The concrete mixture must meet engineering specifications, and care taken to eliminate air pockets and ensure uniform distribution.

Curing: After the concrete, the tank undergoes a curing process to allow it to gain strength gradually. Curing typically involves keeping the concrete moist and at a consistent temperature for a specified duration.

Waterproofing and Coating

To prevent water leakage and protect the structure from corrosion, a waterproofing membrane applied to the interior surface of the tank. Additionally, a protective coating may applied to the exterior to enhance durability and resist environmental factors.

Installation of Tank Accessories

Various accessories instal to make the overhead water tank functional. These may include inlet and outlet pipes, overflow pipes, valves, and fittings. Access points for inspection and maintenance also incorporated into the design.

Testing and Quality Assurance

Before the tank put into service, it undergoes rigorous testing to ensure its structural integrity and functionality. This may include pressure tests, leak detection, and thorough inspections to verify compliance with design specifications and construction standards.


Constructing an overhead water tank is a complex process that requires careful planning, engineering expertise, and adherence to safety and quality standards. The successful completion of each step in the construction procedure ensures the creation of a reliable water storage system that meets the needs of communities, industries, and households alike. By following this comprehensive guide, engineers and construction professionals can contribute to the development of robust and efficient water supply infrastructure.

sui gas bill